Raf roundel copyright

See photo page  100 Polyester Flag 2 Brass Eyelets For Flying Double Stitched For Extra Strength Posted FREE Within The. 00. Nice! red/white/blue RRAF roundel, and the more popular green/gold RAF roundel, Note: This poster has been reproduced with permission and subject to copyright. Read about the history of the Royal Air Force roundel from 1914 to present day with images for each one. The term is used in heraldry, but also commonly used to refer to a type of national insignia used on military aircraft, generally circular in shape and usually comprising concentric rings of different colours. Standard  War II Royal Air Force fame, some later advertisements featured the car and plane together, and at least one U. 35 Squadron aircraft. It is in the public domain but its use is restricted by Title 18, United States Code, Section 704 and the Code of Federal Regulations (32 CFR, Part 507), . Type D * Size The French Air Service started using roundels on military aircraft during WWI. File:RAF roundel. 95. airliners. File the copyright holder of this work, release this work into the public domain. AIR29   Although the Royal Air Force of the World War II is generally known for more camouflage Actually, one good example of this effect is the RAF Roundel Blue. K. Embroidered on the front of a mineral-washed ball cap in RAF green. By 1942, this Type C roundel was fielded. If you wish to post a query about this page, then please go to the newer RAF Commands Forum and register as a member. No need to register, buy now! This is a five colour device which employs dot-matrix style printing and allows the production of white decals on clear film. $4. S. They bring spice to any summer BBQ, with eye-catching designs that are sure to earn you a compliment. Shop Raf Roundel T Shirt custom made just for you. You can help. Whether you want to stick a magnet on the back of your car, a school locker or other metal accessory, you'll find a great match in our collection of thousands of designs. Royal Air Force loses battle to control trademark roundel LONDON - The Ministry of Defence has lost its battle to stop clothing firms using the RAF's famous red, white and blue roundel so beloved by Mods. Here we have an RAF Roundel but we  Apr 11, 2019 Links: FOTW homepage | search | disclaimer and copyright | write us | mirrors The British Royal Air Force Ensign is in light "Air Force" blue with the Rather more attractive than the roundel ensign, but not to the liking of the  Dec 19, 2014 The RAF Roundel traces its origins back to World War I and the birth of It eventually became the standard identifying roundel for all British  The Royal Air Force, abbreviated RAF, is a branch of the British Armed Forces. Full decal markings for ALL schemes and markings worn on this jet over its ENTIRE history. Unfollow aircraft roundel to stop getting updates on your eBay Feed. However, the high street fashion group has issued a challenge, arguing the roundel was brought into the public domain by the Mod movement of the 1960s. AI . stock photo, images and stock photography. Available on many styles, sizes, and colors. The ones I need it for are the dull red and dull blue Ditto for soft-skins be they Army or RAF. LONDON Alert: New Designs LIVE – RAF Roundel, Londontown and God Save the Tea Returns! Dec 19, 2014 By jonathan Support great long-form writing about London by subscribing to the Londontopia Magazine – Available in Print & Digital Editions. Miles Li, 8 November 201 RAF Lowvis Army roundel. We also celebrated the work we are currently doing and looked forward to the next 100 years. 18. Choose from thousands of designs or make your own today! Synonyms for roundel in Free Thesaurus. March 1972 added after Kiwi roundel zaps. A quick how-to video on using aluminum leaf on paper to make a painting of a Royal Air Force Roundel. RAF No. individual printing according to parameters. Can anyone give me the correct diameter ratios* for RAF roundels? Four variants exist: RAF Roundel Keyring. The Royal Flying Corps and its successor the Royal Air Force have employed numerous versions of the roundel since then. Hello to all: I am refurbrishing an rc scale Lancaster for the Museum of Polish Military Heritage in New York City and need the replacement RAF roundel decals for late war 1944-45 Lancs. 12 protective doping. AIR CRAFT. In 1940, the yellow-ringed roundel for aircraft fuselages was modified further — the gold outline was reduced in thickness. By an agreement of August 1940 the PAF was granted independent status, though it remained under RAF command. to identify aircraft, the Royal Australian Air Force initially adopted the Royal Air Force's red, white and blue roundel. 2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. The outer gold circle was added to create contrast on camouflage aircraft. This iconic MOD logo is a stylised target based on the RAF roundel. Each of our transport divisions, or modes, has its own roundel. I am having some difficulty narrowing down actual paint colour codes to use for RAF WW2 roundels - hoping someone here may have done some research at some stage. The size shown is the outer diameter of the circle. Availability: In stock. To protect the peace and safety we enjoy every day, they sacrifice the normal way of life most people take for granted. 1 roundel created by me in Inkscape Category:Royal Air Force squadron insignia File usage No pages on the English Wikipedia use this file (pages on other projects are not listed). 50. AIR26 - RAF Wing F540s. £5. a) Could you please navigate me to an online source of the article? b) Can anybody help me with FS match of the British WWI roundel colours? Many thanks in advance. The range of RAF markings available here should ensure that any high-visibility marked aircraft from the 1920s until the present day may be depicted. The RAF was officially created in 1918. ~S~ Recently, the MOD in London has copyrighted all insignia and logos. Allied Vehicle Stars come in three styles, and sizes up to 12" are available as single use or resealable. MOD Sticker. Shop high quality Raf Roundel T-Shirts from CafePress. A Royal Air Force (RAF) roundel is visible under the left wing, but Institution, National Air and Space Museum, Copyright and Image Use Restrictions. Shop Raf Roundel Hats from CafePress. Turn your fridge into a signpost for your interests with Raf Roundel Magnets. RAF Type A roundel created by me in Inkscape . Find great designs on Tote Bags, Lunch Bags, Messenger Bags, Wallets, Makeup Bags and more. AUGUST 2016 – PAGE 1 OF 2 CROWN COPYRIGHT 2016. Adobe Acrobat. One-quarter front left side view of British-captured Heinkel He 219 A Uhu (Owl) (r/n D5+CL, WNr 310189) on the ground, probably at Grove, in South Jutland, Denmark, circa May-June 1945. The roundel which has long been synonymous with ageing rock group the who, is said to be popular with mod's, skins and tacky clothes retailers who also sell bedding. After speaking with someone who works at the MOD, he gave me some examples; any clothes that had the RAF roundel on them either had to be withdrawn from sale or monies paid to the MOD. Military emblems make fitting tributes and many designs work well in fresh flowers. This image shows a flag, a coat of arms, a seal or some other official insignia produced by the United States Army Institute of Heraldry. RAF Type B. After WWI other air forces adopted roundel insignia as a way to identify military aircraft. "The origins of the Royal Air Force roundel come from the First World War. Our mugs are made of durable ceramic that’s dishwasher and microwave safe. svg‎ (SVG file, nominally 352 × 352 pixels, file size: 508 B) This file is from Wikimedia Commons and may be used by other projects. n by Urban Back to main article. Browse tons of unique designs or create your own custom coffee mug with text and images. There are many many images of RAF aircraft and the roundel on  In Parliament Square, Whitehall, and Trafalgar Square, tens of thousands of people wear RAF roundel rosettes while their eyes search skyward. It would be used until the end of the Second World War. The description on its file description page there is shown below. Talk (0) This image of simple geometry is ineligible for copyright and therefore in the public domain, RAF Roundel WWII, WWII, WW2 Image ID FOT206651 Caption RAF Roundel WWII, WWII, WW2 Rights RF Royalty Free Photographer Kevin Charles Penhallow Dimensions 3888 x 2592 px Find the perfect raf roundel stock photo. By 1917, a thin white outline was usually added to the roundel, to make the blue of the outer circle easier to distinguish from the dark camouflage colours produced by the PC. In 1938, the RAF also adopted a “low-visibility” blue and red tag that became standard for the tops of aircraft wings. 'Tornado' followed the RAF semi-convention of giving fighter and attack aircraft aggressive  Heinkel He 219 Uhu (Owl), UK Captured; Military, UK, Royal Air Force (RAF). which later became the RAF, adopted the Vector Graphic Free Download: RAF Roundel Icon Logo Vector Designer: RAF Royal Air Force Vector File Formats:. svg‎ (600 × 600 pixel, file size: 466 B, MIME type: image/svg+xml) This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Nov 20, 2003 The MoD has applied to the Patent Office to register the roundel symbol, which appears on all RAF aircraft, as its trademark for use on clothing  In December 1914 the RFC followed the example of their French Allies and adopted red, white and blue circles - the French roundel has blue in the centre and  A roundel is a circular disc used as a symbol. AIRO. However, the RAF is the RAF and I have seen an RAF Regiment Humber LRC in 1945 in Germany with a roundel. Most of the instruction sheets have been produced in Adobe Acrobat format to ensure the best cross platform compatibility. Current rating is 0. Copyright © 2014 All Rights Reserved RAF Akrotiri, Cyprus/ RNZAF Ohakea. The 1939 to 1945 period was especially confusing with aircraft sporting standard patterns known as Type A, Type A1, Type B and Type C. Shop with confidence. This seems to have continued to Sicily and Italy, although by 1944 an ACI (Army Council Instruction) had come out that the five-pointed white star was to be used to avoid confusion for the Americans. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. To mark this occasion, we reflected on our history and our achievements. 19 Sqn, Henry Cozens, RAF Duxford, England, 1938 The rudder carries the No 19 on both sides and the RAF roundel in red, white and blue is printed  RAF Roundel Tribute. 03. New refers to a brand-new, unused, unopened, undamaged item, while Used refers to an item that has been used previously. Usage  Copyrights and Acknowledgements AIR24 - RAF Command F540s. I found the answer to this question on the RAF website (www. as a keepsake. MoD officials have now released a statement in the latest round of their long running copyright claim over their globally recognised RAF roundel. Paintings at Auction: http In order to identify royal air force roundel aircraft, the Royal Australian Air Force initially adopted the Royal Air Force's red, white and blue. Free Returns High Quality Printing Fast Shipping 1/300 RAF TYPE B-1 Roundel Decals - $5. They clutch the  Picture of RAF roundel or mod target sign, isolated on white background. svg. This applies worldwide. The Royal Navy is known as the Senior Service because it is the oldest (it was also the only Service to be formed by a Monarch, Queen Elizabeth I). It depends which roundel: RAF - The Royal Air Force RoundelThe Royal Air Force Roundel If you want the colours for the roundel in the RAF logo then the blue is Pantone 295c and the red is 186c. This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Ministry of Defence copyright and merchandising Instructions for application of Flightline Graphics products. Download “RAF Roundel Icon Logo Vector” raf RAF_roundel. See great designs on styles for Men, Women, Kids, Babies, and even Dog T-Shirts! ✓Free Returns  All materials contained in this site are the copyrighted property of The Canadian of the Rickard, J (31 August 2008), Consolidated Catalina – RAF Squadrons, Feb 19, 2019 Air Historical Branch-RAF MoD/Crown Copyright. The red dot, white circle and blue circle roundel was used to identify British aircraft. Worldwide shipping  Some websites suggest that they require written proof of copyright etc. RAF Roundel 2189121A RAF Logo CTM EU004795696 THE ROYAL AIR FORCE Royal Air Force (Wordmark) 2189118 RAF Per Ardua Ad Astra Badge Also known as the RAF Badge (official emblem) or RAF Crest 2335079 RAF Crest Frame 2615991 RAF Station Badges These are inside the crest frame and come under 2615991 RAF Command, Group, Wing and Squadron Badges For over a hundred years the Royal Air Force has defended the skies of Britain and projected Britain’s power and influence around the world. Grab this brightly coloured RAF roundel MOD bullseye circle target designs today or purchase it as a gift for someone who is visiting the UK soon, or just arrived back from the U. 1 synonym for roundel: annulet. These are also available in 1-600 scale. Goodbye iconic roundel: RAF’s famous logo abandoned in favour of new stealthy design THE reformed Dambuster squadron will break away from its Second World War counterparts with a new roundel Polish Squadrons; Polish Squadrons. 2189121A. May 21, 2017 To make it easier to ascertain which plane was their own, a roundel, The Royal Air Force were having similar issues, and added a Union  Aug 1, 2016 ROYAL AIR FORCE INSIGNIA. Our RAF roundel kits are available are available in a range of styles. It is essential to use 'warm' water to soften water-slide decals. No matter what you’re looking for or where you are in the world, our global marketplace of sellers can help you find unique and affordable options. Get your hands on great customizable Raf stickers from Zazzle. Find great deals on eBay for raf roundel. THIS IS A SHIRT DESIGN THAT FEATURES THE RAF ROUNDEL THAT YOU MAY HAVE SEEN VIA THE BAND "THE WHO" AND IN MOD CULTURE, AS WELL AS THE TAILFINS OF RAF WWII AIRCRAFT. RAF Roundel Other types, styles and sizes available on request. Add to Compare · RAF roundel type A1 - wide yellow · Quick view. This is an archived page from the older DCBoard Forum of RAF Commands. net Best Shuffle Dance Music 2019 ♫ 24/7 Live Stream Video Music ♫ Best Electro House & Bass Boosted Mix Bass Dropper - Car & Bass Music 488 watching Live now Until the 1960s several RAF bases in the Far East had their own yacht clubs, for the recreation of RAF personnel there. AIR28 - RAF Station F540s. Copyright restrictions apply to the use of any Royal Australian Air Force logo. All major countries and most minor are available in both 1-300 & 1-600, just ask if you don't see them listed. Get cooking with our Raf Roundel Aprons. Shouldn't there be a large US NAVYesque "RAF" on the rear fuselage like the RJ's bastardisation of the US AIR FORCE markings? (must have saved a couple of quid on stencils etc when changing US to ROYAL). It competed with other British designs of the era, such as the Supermarine Spitfire and Hawker Hurricane. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. Comes on a backing card to give as a gift or keep for yourself. Halley's ""The Squadrons of the RAF and Commonwealth 1918-1988" is a pic of a 214 Sqdn Wellington having a white cross on the roundels on hull and wings. Shop Raf Roundel Bags from CafePress. SVG Software Compatibility: Adobe Illustrator, Photoshop, CorelDRAW, SVG-Edit, Inkscape, Affinity Designer, GIMP, OpenOffice Draw, Serif DrawPlus, Microsoft Expression Design. You searched for: raf roundel! Etsy is the home to thousands of handmade, vintage, and one-of-a-kind products and gifts related to your search. Jun 11, 2008 Legal challenge over use of RAF-style roundel Read more. 'RAF Formation, 1918 - 2018' Notecards. The burgee of the RAF Changi Yacht Club, Singapore (founded 1936; now the civilian Changi Sailing Club) was RAF blue with a white horizontal central band, and a red on blue roundel. Mirko Define roundel. From late August the Union Jack was painted on the undersides of aircraft, but this proved unsatisfactory, as from a distance it resembled the cross On April 1, 1918, the Royal Air Force (RAF) is formed with the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) and the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS). Jonathan Dixon, 17 April 2003. Royal AUSTRALIAN air force) roundel (which became standard for all RAAF aircraft except those working with the RAF in Europe or North Africa) was blue and white - whereas the RAF SEAC roundel was, officially at least, dark and light blue (as illustrated). MOD copyright information, how to obtain licensing permission, use of MOD names, logos and insignia on items offered for sale (merchandise). Walthamstow Central station unveils new poppy roundel ahead of Remembrance Day 00:43 . During WW2 why did RAF fighters have a yellow ring around the red, white and blue roundel on the fuselage? Why also were the roundels on the wings only the standard 3 colour and when did the yellow ring start getting painted thinner? Pictures from www. RAF markings consisted of various forms of the RAF Roundel, Fin Flashes and Serial Numbers, with squadron markings ranging from letters, numbers or symbols. In the Euro Force expansion the Eurofighter Typhoon has RAF roundels. Since I was not able to download Ian Huntley´s article on RAF roundel colours, I would like to ask for your support. 06. Shop Raf Roundel Mugs from CafePress. 10 or PC. If you require a style of star or roundel which is not shown here please feel free to contact us. Discussion RAF Roundel Dimensions The Builders Workshop. Jump to navigation Jump to search. About the aircraft The Vixen Vulture is a single-seat, propellor-driven fighter aircraft designed by Vixen to replace the RAF's aging biplanes. but . Early Origins Aircraft had been used for military purposes in the years preceding the First World War in small numbers, however when war broke out on the 28th July 1914 aircraft would be used on a wide scale for the first time. Product code: RNDLKEY. Strict rules exist about how the roundel can be implemented, and copyright exists on its reproduction. Royal Australian Air Force, 1982-The current RAAF Ensign is a "light blue Australian ensign" with the southern cross tilted and the RAAF roundel featuring a leaping kangaroo in the lower fly. Royal Air Force Colours, Word War I to Modern All material within this site is protected under copyright, and High quality Roundel inspired T-Shirts, Posters, Mugs and more by independent artists and designers from around the world. Find great designs on baseball hats and trucker hats. mod. Soon their allies, including the British RAF and United States Army Air Service, started using roundels as well. roundel synonyms, roundel pronunciation, roundel translation, English dictionary definition of roundel. RAF_Type_C1_Roundel. Shop roundel art prints designed by thousands of artists from around the world and curate a gallery quality art wall in your own home. The MoD has applied to the Patent Office to register the roundel symbol, which appears on all RAF aircraft, as its trademark for use on clothing lines. The MoD first accused Next of copyright infringement last September. LONDON The Ministry of Defence has lost its battle royal air force roundel to stop clothing firms using the RAF's famous red, white and blue roundel so beloved by. Free Returns High Quality Printing Fast Shipping Shop for the perfect raf gift from our wide selection of designs, or create your own personalized gifts. uk). The difference is that the RAAF (i. When someone in the RAF family needs help, the charity they turn to is the Royal Air Forces Association. Strange roundel Strange roundel Author: Henk Welting (Guest) Time Stamp: 16:04:04 Thursday, January 13, 2005 Post: On page 279 of James J. All orders are custom made and most ship worldwide within 24 hours. What implications this may have for the simming world has yet to come to light. Information from its description page there is shown below. The RAF's rank system is, in part, based upon that of the Royal Navy. The following summarises the types of markings utilised on No. EPS . Copyright : speedfighter. ROYAL AIR FORCE Ensign Flying Flag RAF Stickers 120mmx2 RAF Roundel x 5 Stickers Mod The Who Incorrect RAF Roundel Colours The roundel colour pallette for the default skin is far too light; the blue should be deeper darker hue and the red should be duller and have a slightly more rusty tone to it. The roundel design first appeared at Underground stations in the early 1900s. What is the origin of the RAF roundel? At the start of the First World War aircraft bore no markings to denote their nationality, and thus often came under fire from British troops on the ground. It's a fun image and the aluminum leaf really lights it up. A roundel is a circular disc used as a symbol. Welcome to t he ro ad accident fund The Road Accident Fund (RA F) provid es compu ls or y c over to all users of South African roads, c i tizens and foreigners, against injuries sustained or death arisi n g fr om accidents in volving motor vehicles within the borders of South Africa. The British now rose to the challenge of integrating the Poles into the RAF. MOD Sticker Large 5 3/4 Inches. A Royal Air Force (RAF) roundel is visible under the left wing, but British-captured markings on the rear fuselage and left vertical stabilizer have been 1/300 RAF TYPE A Roundel Decals - $5. What are synonyms for roundel? Description. : You are free: to share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work RAF Roundel decals RC Scale - Need source manufaturer & product No. Opis sa njene stranice opisa datoteke prikazan je ispod. Discuss all aspects of our aviation heritage and preservation scene, including airshows, museums and restorations. e. Ova datoteka je s Wikimedia Commonsa. Commons is a freely licensed media file repository. United Kingdom. More · 'Red, White & Blue Roundel One' Notecards. More · 'A Warm Welcome' Christmas Cards. Oct 31, 2016 so to are the collars of Peaty's signature Lizard Skins lock-on grips, and we never noticed the RAF roundel on the face plate of the stem. The Royal Air Force roundel has has been used on British aircraft since 1915. Retailers block RAF bid to trademark its roundel By Marketing Week 22 Jan 2004 12:00 am Retailer Arcadia Group has stopped the Royal Air Force (RAF) from registering its red, white and blue target logo for use on clothing. While this I have found that it is very handy to have high quality spare national markings to supplement or replace poor quality kit decals, or to use as custom markings. ROYAL AIR FORCE RAF Roundel. Free Returns 100% Satisfaction Guarantee Fast Shipping The air forces of the United Kingdom – the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm, the Army's Army Air Corps and the Royal Air Force use a roundel, a circular identification  MOD copyright information, how to obtain licensing permission, use of MOD names, logos and insignia on items Royal Air Force insignia list (August 2016). Today the RAF is engaged in 15 missions on 4 continents in 22 countries. The description on its description page there is shown below. The need to be able to identify aircraft soon We work out the trending price by crunching the data on the product’s sale price over the last 90 days. ad depicted the car bearing RAF roundels. A metal and enamel keyring featuring the instantly recognisable RAF roundel. 10,00 Kč individual  To mark The Royal Air Force's centenary, the RAF wanted to create a visual identity Inspiration was taken from the iconic RAF Roundel to create a dynamic   More Views. Choose from four colors, including white, khaki, lemon The roundel, especially the RAF's, has been associated with British pop art of the 1960s, appearing in paintings by Jasper Johns. RAF Roundel Type C Available as Single Use Stencil. 10. Find great deals on eBay for raf roundel stickers. Qty:. Commons je skladište slobodnih medija i datoteka za sve projekte Wikimedia fondacije. The RAF took its place beside the British navy Find great deals on eBay for raf roundel and raf roundel sticker. We believe every generation owes a debt of gratitude to the RAF and their families. Great for working in the garden or grilling a T-bone, our novelty aprons are personalized with designs ranging from food themes to funny sayings. RAF roundel size and colour have changed many times since 1918. Available in choice of sizes dependant on where on the  Items 1 - 12 of 34 Customize. The roundel, especially that used by the Royal Air Force, has been associated with pop art of the 1960s, appearing in paintings by Jasper Johns. Typhoons form '100' over London to mark RAF centenary. raf. AIR25 - RAF Group F540s. Alternatively you can leave a comment on this page using Facebook in the comments box at the bottom of the page. This decal was produced from a HUGE amount of data and photos provided by NASA! This is a HUGE multiple-sheet Find great deals on eBay for raf stickers. Looking for the ideal Raf Roundel Patches to express yourself? Come check out our giant selection & find yours today. Antonyms for roundel. This page is read-only. The kiwi is applied by stencil, and the roundel is normally carried in all six positions on non-camouflaged fixed wing aircraft, two positions on helicopters. It became part of the pop consciousness after British rock group The Who started to wear RAF roundels (and Union Flags) as part of their stage apparel at the start This Hurricane picture appears in the book The Royal Air Force of World War Two in Colour, and the caption for this has the following info: Personal a/c of 87 Sqn leader Dennis Smallwood. These communicate that while they are part of TfL, they also operate independently. 0 Unported license. The Roundel Kitchen Collection Our beautiful ranges all in one place Follow the arrow below to narrow your search All Sort Portfolio High quality Raf Roundel inspired T-Shirts by independent artists and designers from around the world. For over a hundred years the Royal Air Force has defended the skies of Britain and Today the RAF is engaged in 15 missions on 4 continents in 22 countries. Total votes 0. £ 3. Don't understand why we didn't go with a more fitting "Royal Air Force" on the forward fuselage as other large aircraft. BE500 had the name Cawnpore I, being a presentation aircraft funded by donation from this location in the United Provinces. In 1981 the RAF roundel on the RAAF Ensign was changed into the red kangaroo roundel. We offer magnets in a variety of styles, shapes and sizes to suit your desired location perfectly. The RNZAF uses the word “Kiwi” as its registered call sign (and had been doing so in South-East Asia before 1970), and New Zealanders abroad are known as kiwis in many parts of the world. The ranks equate as follows, starting Decal Sets In 1/72 & 1/144 1/72 Sets: NB-52B “Balls Eight”. 761 results for aircraft roundel Save aircraft roundel to get e-mail alerts and updates on your eBay Feed. RAF Type C roundel created by me in Inkscape Category:Royal Air Force squadron insignia File usage No pages on the English Wikipedia use this file (pages on other projects are not listed). HUGE MULTIPLE SHEET SET! NASA mother ship for the X-15 and many other X-planes. Create. On 1 April 2018, the Royal Air Force celebrated its 100th birthday. The Army is next in precendence, followed by the Royal Air Force (the Junior Service). This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. raf roundel copyright

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